• Divergent selection;
  • hybridization;
  • introgression;
  • population genomics;
  • speciation

Speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated lineages arise, and is one of the fundamental means by which the diversity of life increases. Whereas numerous studies have documented an association between ecological divergence and reproductive isolation, relatively little is known about the role of natural selection in genome divergence during the process of speciation. Here, we use genome-wide DNA sequences and Bayesian models to test the hypothesis that loci under divergent selection between two butterfly species (Lycaeides idas and L. melissa) also affect fitness in an admixed population. Locus-specific measures of genetic differentiation between L. idas and L. melissa and genomic introgression in hybrids varied across the genome. The most differentiated genetic regions were characterized by elevated L. idas ancestry in the admixed population, which occurs in L. idas-like habitat, consistent with the hypothesis that local adaptation contributes to speciation. Moreover, locus-specific measures of genetic differentiation (a metric of divergent selection) were positively associated with extreme genomic introgression (a metric of hybrid fitness). Interestingly, concordance of differentiation and introgression was only partial. We discuss multiple, complementary explanations for this partial concordance.