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MAINTENANCE OF GENETIC VARIATION IN HUMAN PERSONALITY: TESTING EVOLUTIONARY MODELS BY ESTIMATING HERITABILITY DUE TO COMMON CAUSAL VARIANTS AND INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF DISTANT INBREEDING

Authors

  • Karin J.H. Verweij,

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    2. School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4067, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    3. These authors contributed equally
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  • Jian Yang,

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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  • Jari Lahti,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Juha Veijola,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
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  • Mirka Hintsanen,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences / Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Laura Pulkki-Råback,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences / Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Kati Heinonen,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Anneli Pouta,

    1. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu 90101, Finland
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  • Anu-Katriina Pesonen,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Elisabeth Widen,

    1. Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Anja Taanila,

    1. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
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  • Matti Isohanni,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Jouko Miettunen,

    1. Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
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  • Aarno Palotie,

    1. Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
    2. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10, 1SA, United Kingdom
    3. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Helsinki and University Central Hospital, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Lars Penke,

    1. Department of Psychology, and Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, United Kingdom
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  • Susan K. Service,

    1. University of California Los Angeles, Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, California 90095
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  • Andrew C. Heath,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis 63130, Missouri
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  • Grant W. Montgomery,

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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  • Olli Raitakari,

    1. Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital and Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku 20521, Finland
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  • Mika Kähönen,

    1. Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere 33014, Finland
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  • Jorma Viikari,

    1. Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku 20521, Finland
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  • Katri Räikkönen,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Johan G Eriksson,

    1. National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu 90101, Finland
    2. Department of General Practice and Primary health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
    3. Helsinki University Central Hospital, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki 00029, Finland
    4. Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki 00014, Finland
    5. Vasa Central Hospital, Vasa 65130, Finland
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  • Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen,

    1. Institute of Behavioural Sciences / Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
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  • Terho Lehtimäki,

    1. Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital and University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere 33014, Finland
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  • Nicholas G. Martin,

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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  • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin,

    1. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
    2. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    3. Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu 90014, Finland
    4. Department of Lifecourse and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu 90101, Finland
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  • Peter M. Visscher,

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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  • Matthew C. Keller,

    1. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309, Colorado
    2. Institute for Behavioral Genetics, University of Colorado, Boulder 80303, Colorado
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  • Brendan P. Zietsch

    1. Genetic Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology, and Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratories, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston 4006, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    2. School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4067, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    3. These authors contributed equally
    4. E-mail: Brendan.Zietsch@qimr.edu.au
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Correction for Verweij et al. () Volume 67, Issue 5, 1537, Article first published online: 12 March 2013

Abstract

Personality traits are basic dimensions of behavioral variation, and twin, family, and adoption studies show that around 30% of the between-individual variation is due to genetic variation. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. Several evolutionary mechanisms could explain how genetic variation is maintained in traits, and each of these makes predictions in terms of the relative contribution of rare and common genetic variants to personality variation, the magnitude of nonadditive genetic influences, and whether personality is affected by inbreeding. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from > 8000 individuals, we estimated that little variation in the Cloninger personality dimensions (7.2% on average) is due to the combined effect of common, additive genetic variants across the genome, suggesting that most heritable variation in personality is due to rare variant effects and/or a combination of dominance and epistasis. Furthermore, higher levels of inbreeding were associated with less socially desirable personality trait levels in three of the four personality dimensions. These findings are consistent with genetic variation in personality traits having been maintained by mutation–selection balance.

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