COMPLEX INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PATERNAL AND MATERNAL EFFECTS: PARENTAL EXPERIENCE AND AGE AT REPRODUCTION AFFECT FECUNDITY AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN A BUTTERFLY
Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
© 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 66, Issue 11, pages 3558–3569, November 2012
How to Cite
Ducatez, S., Baguette, M., Stevens, V. M., Legrand, D. and Fréville, H. (2012), COMPLEX INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PATERNAL AND MATERNAL EFFECTS: PARENTAL EXPERIENCE AND AGE AT REPRODUCTION AFFECT FECUNDITY AND OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN A BUTTERFLY. Evolution, 66: 3558–3569. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01704.x
- Issue published online: 25 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 31 MAY 2012 12:05AM EST
- Received November 2, 2011 Accepted May 4, 2012
- Mate choice;
- nuptial gift;
- Pieris brassicae;
- transgenerational effects
Parental effects can greatly affect offspring performance and are thus expected to impact population dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Most studies have focused on maternal effects, whereas fathers are also likely to influence offspring phenotype, for instance when males transfer nutrients to females during mating. Moreover, although the separate effects of maternal age and the environment have been documented as a source of parental effects in many species, their combined effects have not been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the combined effects of maternal and paternal age at reproduction and a mobility treatment in stressful conditions on offspring performance in the butterfly Pieris brassicae. Both paternal and maternal effects affected progeny traits but always via interactions between age and mobility treatment. Moreover, parental effects shifted from male effects expressed at the larval stage to maternal effects at the adult stage. Indeed, egg survival until adult emergence significantly decreased with father age at mating only for fathers having experienced the mobility treatment, whereas offspring adult life span decreased with increasing mother age at laying only for females that did not experience the mobility treatment. Overall, our results demonstrate that both parents’ phenotypes influence offspring performance through nongenetic effects, their relative contribution varying over the course of progeny's life.