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Appendix S1. Data used in the comparative analyses.

Appendix S2. Literature sources from which life-history data were extracted.

Appendix S3. GenBank accession numbers.

Appendix S4. Calibration points for estimates of divergence times.

Appendix S5. Robustness analysis of models of trait evolution for reproductive modes, life-history traits, and climatic data.

Appendix S6. Life history trait evolution and net diversification rates.

Appendix S7. Analysis of climate's effect on the distribution of reproductive modes around the world.

Table S1. Comparison between models in which character states influence diversification rates (unconstrained model) and those in which diversification rates are the same for both states (constrained model).

Figure S1. Time-calibrated phylogeny estimated using maximum-likelihood.

Figure S2. Ancestral state reconstruction on the fixed-age phylogeny of reproductive modes categorized as aquatic breeding, terrestrial breeding or direct developing.

Figure S3. Ancestral state reconstruction on the fixed-age phylogeny of reproductive modes categorized as having exotrophic larvae, endotrophic larvae or direct development.

Figure S4. Ancestral state reconstruction on the fixed-age phylogeny of reproductive modes categorized as having unprotected eggs and larvae, protected eggs but not larvae, protected eggs and larvae, or direct development.

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