CONSISTENCY AND VARIATION IN PHENOTYPIC SELECTION EXERTED BY A COMMUNITY OF SEED PREDATORS
Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
© 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Volume 67, Issue 1, pages 157–169, January 2013
How to Cite
Benkman, C. W., Smith, J. W., Maier, M., Hansen, L. and Talluto, M. V. (2013), CONSISTENCY AND VARIATION IN PHENOTYPIC SELECTION EXERTED BY A COMMUNITY OF SEED PREDATORS. Evolution, 67: 157–169. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01736.x
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 16 JUL 2012 01:45PM EST
- Received March 29, 2012, Accepted June 28, 2012, Data Archived: Dryad doi:10.5061/dryad.7q341
- 2010. Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:87–97.
- 1999. The selection mosaic and diversifying coevolution between crossbills and lodgepole pine. Am. Nat. 154:S75–S91.
- 2009. Coevolution between crossbills and black pine: the importance of competitors, forest area, and resource stability. J. Evol. Biol. 22:942–953. , and .
- 2004. A keystone selective agent? Pine squirrels and the frequency of serotiny in lodgepole pine. Ecology 85:2082–2087. , and .
- 2001. The influence of a competitor on the geographic mosaic of coevolution between crossbills and lodgepole pine. Evolution 55:282–294. , , and .
- 2003. Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine. Am. Nat. 162: 182–194. , , , and .
- 2010. Patterns of coevolution in the adaptive radiation of crossbills. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1206:1–16. , , and .
- 2012. Consequences of trait evolution in a multi-species system. Pp. 278–292 in T. Ohgushi, O. Schmitz, and R. Holt, eds. Interaction richness and complexity: ecological and evolutionary aspects of trait-mediated indirect interactions. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York , NY . , , and .
- 2008. Predictable patterns of disruptive selection in stickleback in postglacial lakes. Am. Nat. 172:1–11. , and .
- 1997. Bootstrap methods and their application. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , U.K . , and .
- 1974. Evolutionary responses of plants to seed-eaters: pine squirrel predation on lodgepole pine. Evolution 28:221–231.
- 1988. Foraging behavior of a central-place forager: field tests of theoretical predictions. Am. Nat. 131:159–174. .
- 2010. Evolutionary constraint and ecological consequences. Evolution 64:1865–1884.
- 2007. Dos and don’ts of testing the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. Heredity 98:249–258. , , , , , , , , and .
- 2008. How and why species multiply: the radiation of Darwin's finches. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton , NJ . , and .
- 1994. Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees. Ecology 75:642–647. , and .
- 2002. Granivory. Pp. 132–154 in C. Herrera and O. Pellmyr, eds. Plant-animal interactions: an evolutionary approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications, New York . , and .
- 1971. Seed predation by animals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2:465–492.
- 1974. Tropical blackwater rivers, animals, and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 6:69–103 .
- 2011. Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection? Am. Nat. 177:346–357. , and .
- 2007. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of spatial and temporal variation in pre-dispersal seed predation. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 9:79–100. , , and .
- 1983. The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:1210–1226. , and .
- 2011. Predation and protection in the macroevolutionary history of conifer cones. Proc. R. Soc. B 278:3003–3008.
- 2012. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms. Evolution 66:200–210. , and .
- 2009. Lizards in an evolutionary tree: ecology and adaptive radiation of anoles. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley , CA .
- 2011. The ecological causes of evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26:519–527.
- 2010. Habitat area and structure affect the impact of seed predators and the potential for coevolutionary arms races. Ecology 91:802–814. , and .
- 1986. Insects and conifer seed production in the Inland Mountain West: a review. Pp. 225–237 in R. C. Shearer (compiler). Proceedings of the conifer tree seed in the Inland Mountain West symposium. General Technical Report INT 203, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ogden , UT .
- 2012. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent. Evolution 66:435–442. , and .
- 2009. Ecological explanations for (incomplete) speciation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24:145–156. , , and .
- 2012. Interaction richness and complexity: ecological and evolutionary aspects of trait-mediated indirect interactions. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York , NY . , , and .
- 2008. The geographic selection mosaic for ponderosa pine and crossbills: a tale of two squirrels. Evolution. 62:348–360. , and .
- 2006. Patterns of genetic variation in the adaptive radiation of New World crossbills (Aves: Loxia). Mol. Ecol. 15:1873–1887. , , and .
- 2007. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude? Evolution 61:2142–2153. , , and .
- 2011. Low levels of population genetic structure in lodgepole pine across a geographic mosaic of coevolution. Am. J. Bot. 98:669–679. , , , and .
- 2009. Character displacement: ecological and reproductive responses to a common evolutionary problem. Quart. Rev. Biol. 84:253–276. , and .
- 2008. Speciation in birds. Roberts and Company, Greenwood Village , CO .
- 1992. The measurement of selection on quantitative traits: biases due to environmental covariance between traits and fitness. Evolution 46:616–626.
- 2000. The ecology of adaptive radiation. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford , U.K .
- 2006. A possible role for pine squirrels in structuring breeding bird communities in lodgepole pine forests. Condor 108:232–238.
- 2004. Interactions among moths, crossbills, squirrels and lodgepole pine in a geographic selection mosaic. Evolution 58:95–101. , and .
- 2005. A role for habitat area in the geographic mosaic of coevolution between red crossbills and lodgepole pine. J. Evol. Biol. 18:1042–1049. , and .
- 2007a. Convergent patterns in the selection mosaic for two North American bird-dispersed pines. Ecol. Monogr. 77:203–220. , and .
- 2007b. Selection by a pre-dispersal seed predator constrains the evolution of avian seed dispersal in pines. Funct. Ecol. 21:611–618. , and .
- 2007c. Extreme environmental variation sharpens selection that drives the evolution of a mutualism. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 274:1799–1805. , and .
- 2009. It's about time: the temporal dynamics of phenotypic selection in the wild. Ecol. Letters 12:1261–1276 , , and .
- 1968. The adaptive nature of social organization in the genus of tree squirrels Tamiasciurus. Ecol. Monogr. 38:31–63.
- 1970. The coevolution of pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus) and conifers. Ecol. Monogr. 40:349–371. .
- 2007. A coevolutionary arms race causes ecological speciation in crossbills. Am. Nat. 169:455–465. , and .
- 2008. Estimating nonlinear selection gradients using quadratic regression coefficients: double or nothing? Evolution 62:2435–2440. , , , , and .
- 2005. The geographic mosaic of coevolution. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago , IL .
- 2011. The million-year wait for macroevolutionary bursts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:15908–15913. , , , and .
- 1990. The causes of natural selection. Evolution 44:1947–1955. , and .
- 2003. A review of trait-mediated indirect interactions in ecological communities. Ecology 84:1083–1100. , and .