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Figure S1. Average correlation between male display values and “gestation time,” a measure of the number of CPU instructions executed over the course of an organism's lifetime.

Figure S2. Frequency of female mate choice for either a dummy trait (lacking phenotypic variation) or an indicator trait (experimentally forced to reflect a male's fitness) through time in evolving populations of digital organisms.

Figure S3. Frequency of female mate choice for either a dummy trait (lacking phenotypic variation) or an arbitrary male display trait through time in evolving populations of digital organisms.

Figure S4. Average male display values in evolving populations of digital organisms allowed to exhibit both an arbitrary male sexual display and a directional female preference for the display (blue lines), or only the sexual display with no female mating preferences (red lines).

Figure S5. Frequency of mate choice (left column), average male sexual displays (middle column), and average correlation between male displays and viability (right column) over time in populations evolved for one million updates with a reduced mutation rate of 0.0005 substitutions per site per generation, for three different levels of the cost of choosiness.

Figure S6. Frequency of mate choice (left column), average male sexual displays (middle column), and average correlation between male displays and viability (right column) over time in populations preadapted to their environment 5 × 106 updates prior to enabling mutations causing mate preference, for three different levels of the cost of choosiness.

Figure S7. Frequency of mate choice (left column), average male sexual displays (middle column), and average correlation between male displays and viability (right column) over time in populations preadapted to their environment 5 × 106 updates prior to enabling mutations causing mate preference, and with a reduced mutation rate of 0.0005 substitutions per site per generation, for three different levels of the cost of choosiness.

Figure S8. Average correlation between male display and fitness in populations of digital organisms evolving over time, in two different environments, with three different costs of mate choice (none, medium, high), and with two different architectures underlying male sexual displays (increment-display and set-display).

Figure S9. Average correlation between paternal display value and offspring viability in populations of digital organisms evolved for > 8000 generations (10,000 offspring generated per population), with varying costs of mate choice, in two different environments, and with two different architectures underlying male sexual displays (A, C: increment-display; B, D: set-display).

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