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Keywords:

  • Adaptation;
  • covariance;
  • G-matrix;
  • genetic correlation;
  • selection gradient;
  • variance

The study of evolutionary constraint is an active and important area, and genetic correlations and quantitative genetic techniques more generally have been the dominant approach to constraint. Here, I argue that genetic correlations are not very useful for studying constraint, review recent alternative approaches, and briefly discuss the state of our knowledge of the evolutionary importance of constraints caused by genetic variance and covariance.