Appendix S1: Supplementary methods.

Appendix S2: Relaxing the assumption of constant population size.

Figure S1. Set of virulence values that allow coexistence of a defective parasite (species 1) and a helper parasite (species 2) for increasing probabilities of co-transmission.

Figure S2. Evolutionary stable level of virulence (ESV) as a function of the probability of co-transmission for various host input rates (Φ).

Figure S3. ESV of species 2 (α*2) as a function of the probability of co-transmission (ε) and of the virulence of the second species (α1) with scenario 2 in a case where host population size is not constant (Φ = 1).

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