What factors affect an aid-giver's perceived helpfulness and likeability and the amount of positive and negative social influence he is able to exert? In experiment I, subjects performing a difficult task expected or did not expect to receive help which they subsequently received or did not receive. No significant differences were found in reactions to the aid-giver in the two expectancy confirmation conditions. However, reactions were markedly different in the two disconfirmation conditions-very positive when unexpected help was received and very negative when expected help was not received. The two hypothesized main effects were found (p < .05) on the negative social influence, or counter-conformity, measure. In experiment II, the perceived nature of the task was varied. Subjects received or did not receive unexpected help on a relatively unimportant task which yielded only extrinsic rewards or on an intelligence test which yielded only intrinsic, ego-rewards. This time, social influence and counter-conformity measures both showed predicted interaction effects (p < .05), while attitudinal measures did not.