Sex role formulations assume relationships between role orientation and adjustive social behavior. However, few studies have examined behavioral differences with respect to both gender and sex role orientation in realistically complex social interactions. In the current study, groups composed of four male and four female “representatives” from each sex role category (masculine-typed, feminine-typed, androgynous, and undifferentiated) were presented with two group decision-making tasks. Group interactions were videotaped and subjects' behavior was rated on social skill variables. Analyses of variance revealed gender differences with males performing more actively than females, especially when the content of the decision-making task involved more historically male-oriented topics. However, when subjects' group behavior was examined in relation to their sex role orientation, androgynous and masculine-typed persons of both sexes performed in a more active, instrumental manner than feminine-typed or undifferentiated persons. Further, correlational analyses indicated that females' masculinity scores were substantially associated with ratings of effectiveness in the decision-making groups. Implications of these findings are discussed.