The expected consequences of behavior are basic to many modern theories of behavior and to programs designed to influence behavior. In this research, 52 consequences expected from smoking cigarettes were measured in a panel study of 1,406 adolescents. Six factors were identified through factor analysis of these consequences. Multivariate analyses generally indicated that the negative physical/social factor predicted the initiation of smoking and the pleasure factor predicted smoking initiation and increased smoking among those who were smokers at the beginning of study. The other factors-positive peer relationships, negative peer relationships, habit, and health-were either unrelated to subsequent smoking behavior or inconsistently related across the multiple measures of behavior. The research is considered in the context of theory, methods, and programs related to adolescent cigarette smoking.