Stuttering, Audience Size, and the Other-Total Ratio: A Self-Attention Perspective1


  • 1

    The author would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.

2 Requests for reprints should be sent to Brian Mullen, Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210.


The effect of audience size on verbal disfluences in stutterers is considered from the perspective of self-attention theory. Two secondary analyses conducted using original data from studies (Hahn, 1940; Porter, 1939) which observed the effects of audience size on stuttering, reveal an increase in stuttering as a negatively accelerating function of audience size. These results confirm the utility of the self-attention theory Other-Total Ratio in characterizing the effect of the group on the individual.