A survey of citizen support of a proposal to increase property taxes for public education was conducted in a school district in Illinois. Two social psychological perspectives predicting support were tested. One perspective, derived from social exchange theory, predicted that citizens would base their support of or opposition to a tax increase primarily on perceived self-interested economic gain or loss. A second perspective predicted that non-self-interested concerns, such as attitudes toward the schools, would determine support of or opposition to a tax increase. Although both models received support, the strongest and mat consistent predictors of tax support among those most likely to be voters were the non-self-interested factors. Implications of these findings for public policy and for understanding political behavior are discussed.