Cigarette Smoking, Academic Lifestyle, and Social Impact Efficacy: An Eight-Year Study from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood1


  • 1

    This research was supported by grant DA01070 from the National Institute of Drug Abuse. Production assistance of Julie Speckart is gratefully acknolwedged.

2 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr. Michael D. Newcomb, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90024–1563.


Two hundred and twenty-one males and 518 females were followed for 8 years from early adolescence. A causal model was proposed that related five constructs measured in adolescence to four corresponding constructs measured 8 years later. The predictor constructs included smoking involvement, academic lifestyle orientation, emotional well-being, social impact efficacy, and peer smoking behavior. Academic lifestyle orientation was found to be a central organizing construct, with the strongest within-time and across-time correlations with other constructs. The relatively weak causal influences of teenage smoking and teenage social impact efficacy suggested an explanation for the limited impact of past drug abuse prevention programs. Policy implications are discussed.