The relationship of control beliefs to psychological adjustment was investigated in a sample of 24 gay men diagnosed with AIDS, participants in the University of California, Los Angeles site of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Distinctions between generalized contingency beliefs and specific competence beliefs and between personal and vicarious control beliefs were included in the questionnaire and interview measures administered. The results support these distinctions and indicate that beliefs in personal control over day-to-day symptoms and over course of illness were positively related to adjustment, whereas beliefs in control by others over course of illness and over medical care and treatment were negatively related to adjustment. These relationships appeared to be strongest for men who reported poorer health. These associations were not accounted for by locus of control beliefs, negative affectivity, or time since diagnosis with AIDS.