I am grateful to Mark Hallahan for technical support and carpentry assistance; Katherine and Matthew Herzog for driving services; Nancy Petry for methodological advice; and Roger Brown, Ellen Langer, and Robert Rosenthal for valuable comments on drafts of this article.
Automobile Driving as Seen by the Actor, the Active Observer, and the Passive Observer1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 24, Issue 23, pages 2057–2074, December 1994
How to Cite
Herzog, T. A. (1994), Automobile Driving as Seen by the Actor, the Active Observer, and the Passive Observer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24: 2057–2074. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb00574.x
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
This research utilizes the actor-observers paradigm (Jones & Nisbett, 1971) to study driving interactions from the actor, active observer, and passive observer perspectives. Videos of interactions in three driving situations were used to elicit personal and situational causal attributions from subjects. For each interaction, three videos were made, corresponding with each of the three perspectives. Results for two of the interactions were in accordance with the Jones and Nisbett hypothesis, while those of the third were not. Of note was that passive observers gave consistently lower attributional ratings, both personal and situational, compared to actors and active observers. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to driving behavior and education.