This longitudinal study examined self-concept changes as a function of orthodontic treatment. Three cohorts of adolescents undergoing orthodontia in consecutive years were given the Piers-Hams Self-concept Scale (Piers, 1969) at various times before, during, and after the treatment process. There were no changes in physical appearance subscale scores. Total self-concept scores did increase from before to after treatment, but only for those subjects who were tested within 6 months after the removal of their braces. When posttest measures were taken more than 6 months after treatment, no self-concept improvement was evident. Thus, orthodontic treatment produced no lasting effects on self-esteem.