This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Texas Affiliate of the American Heart Association that was awarded to the first author. Data collection and participation by George A. Kaplan and Jukka T. Salonen were partially supported by grants from the Academy of Finland and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Are All Hostility Scales Alike? Factor Structure and Covariation Among Measures of Hostility1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 25, Issue 13, pages 1142–1168, July 1995
How to Cite
Miller, T. Q., Jenkins, C. D., Kaplan, G. A. and Salonen, J. T. (1995), Are All Hostility Scales Alike? Factor Structure and Covariation Among Measures of Hostility. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25: 1142–1168. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1995.tb02611.x
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Few studies have examined the correlational and structural relationships between measures of hostility that may predict coronary heart disease. Using data from a population-based study (N= 2,682), we examined the factor structure among the five subscales from Siegel's (1986) Multi-dimensional Anger Inventory, the three subscales from Spielberger et al.'s (1985) anger expression scales, a Cook-Medley (Cook & Madley, 1954) hostility subscale that measures cynicism, and items measuring hostility from four scales that assess Type A behavior. Eight separate factors were identified: hostile anger expression, perceived control over the expression of one's anger, frequency of anger, ease of anger provocation, brooding, hostile outlook, cynicism, and sullenness. These results suggest that the structure of hostility measures is more complex than previous factor analyses have suggested. Our findings point to the dangers in assuming that a factor structure can be generalized beyond the data on which it is based to provide theoretical statements about psychological structure. The new scales appear to be valid because they correlate with demographic variables and indicators of social support in the expected directions.