This study examined the association of two types of condom use outcome expectancies (self-approval and partner reaction) with patterns of safer sexual behavior among predominantly African American patients at a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. As expected, both individuals' own self-approval outcome expectancies and their partner reaction outcome expectancies predicted consistency of condom use, although partner reaction expectancies predicted condom use above and beyond the effects of self-approval expectancies. Furthermore, individuals who believed that they and their partner shared positive condom use outcome expectancies reported the greatest use of condoms. These findings suggest that HIV prevention programs should address both types of condom use outcome expectancies in order to maximize behavior change.