The Nature of Stereotypes II: A Multiple-Process Model of Evaluations1


  • 1

    An earlier version of this paper was presented at the August 1992 convention of the American Psychological Association.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to either Lee Jussim or Christopher J. Fleming, Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. The first two authors contributed equally to this research.


A model integrating 3 theoretical perspectives regarding how stereotypes influence person perception was tested. The theories included evaluative extremity theories, assumed characteristics theory, and expectancy violation theory. Predictions were assessed by manipulating the ethnicity, personal appearance, and speech style of target job applicants. These applicants were rated by 109 judges. Results showed that: (a) Judges evaluated job applicants far more on the basis of their personal appearance and speech style than on the basis of their ethnicity; (b) the range of evaluations of African American applicants was larger than the range of evaluations of White applicants; and (c) overall, judges evaluated the African American applicants more favorably than the White applicants. Results strongly supported the model integrating the 3 theories. We discuss the applicability of the model to other research and naturalistic situations.