Conceptualizing and Measuring a Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence1


  • 1

    We express our appreciation to Aroldo Rodrigues for his suggestions and assistance in developing the scale items.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Bertram H. Raven, Department of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, or to Joseph Schwarzwald, Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.


In response to new theoretical conceptualizations (Raven, 1992, 1993), an instrument was developed to measure 11 bases of power, the original 6 French and Raven (1959; Raven, 1965) bases of power, with 3 of these further differentiated: reward (personal, impersonal), coercion (personal. impersonal), legitimate (position, reciprocity, equity, dependence), expert, referent, and information. In Study 1, 317 American student respondents rated the likelihood that each of these power bases contributed to a supervisor successfully influencing a subordinate in a series of hypothetical situations. The internal consistency of the items which made up the 11 power bases proved adequate. Factor analysis found 7 factors and 2 categories of bases: harsh and soft. In Study 2, which used 101 Israeli health workers, the earlier findings were generally supported. In addition, job satisfaction was found to be positively related to the attribution of soft bases to the supervisor.