The authors would like to thank Tony Manstead, Bas Verplanken, and two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
Explaining Proenvironmental Intention and Behavior by Personal Norms and the Theory of Planned Behavior1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 29, Issue 12, pages 2505–2528, December 1999
How to Cite
Harland, P., Staats, H. and Wilke, H. A. M. (1999), Explaining Proenvironmental Intention and Behavior by Personal Norms and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29: 2505–2528. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb00123.x
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
The value of personal norms (Schwartz, 1977) for proenvironmental behavior has been demonstrated in previous studies (e.g., Vining & Ebreo, 1992), but not in addition to the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Madden, 1986). In the present study, this combination was investigated by means of a mail survey among a sample of 305 Dutch citizens who were enlisted to participate in a behavioral change intervention program on environmentally relevant behavior. Personal norms appear to increase the proportion of explained variance in 5 intentions and 4 self-reported measures of performed environmentally relevant behaviors beyond that explained by three of the theory of planned behavior constructs (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control). Issues evoked by these results are discussed.