This research was supported by a grant from the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation. The authors are indebted to Su-lin Gan, Cynthia King Jablonsky, Lola McCord, and Patrice Oppliger of the University of Alabama, and to Nadine Richendoller of Auburn University, for their able assistance as experimenters.
Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Gratuitous Media Violence on Provoked and Unprovoked Hostile Behavior1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 29, Issue 1, pages 145–165, January 1999
How to Cite
Zillmann, D. and Weaver, J. B. (1999), Effects of Prolonged Exposure to Gratuitous Media Violence on Provoked and Unprovoked Hostile Behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29: 145–165. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01379.x
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
On 4 consecutive days, respondents were exposed to gratuitously violent or nonviolent intact feature films. They rated the entertainment value of these films. One day after exposure to the last film of the series, respondents participated in ostensibly unrelated research on emotion recognition. As they performed a test, they were neutrally or abusively treated by a research assistant. Thereafter, they were put in a position to harm this assistant. Both provocation and exposure to violent films were found to foster markedly increased hostile behavior. These effects were noninteractive. Moreover, these effects were uniform for respondent gender. Compared to men, women exhibited less hostility overall, however. The findings thus show that prolonged exposure to gratuitously violent films is capable (a) of escalating hostile behavior in provoked men and women, and (b) perhaps more importantly, of instigating such behavior in unprovoked men and women.