The authors would like to thank Craig Emerson, Joycelen Lankford, Paula Long, and Micheal Rickman for their help in collecting and scoring the data presented in this paper. They also thank Patricia M. Dubbert, Cheryl O. Grieve, Andrew W. Meyers, Cynthia L. Turk, and several anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on early (and late) drafts of the paper.
Counterfactual Production and Achievement Orientation in Competitive Athletic Settings1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 29, Issue 10, pages 2177–2199, October 1999
How to Cite
Grieve, F. G., Houston, D. A., Dupuis, S. E. and Eddy, D. (1999), Counterfactual Production and Achievement Orientation in Competitive Athletic Settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29: 2177–2199. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb02301.x
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Two studies examined the impact of achievement orientation on counterfactual production in competitive sporting situations. In Study 1, participants created counterfactuals after reading 4 vignettes. Results indicated that participants reading about winners created more subtractive and downward counterfactuals than did participants reading about losers, while participants reading about losers created more additive and upward counterfactuals than did participants reading about winners. In Study 2, using participants in 3-on-3 basketball games, achievement orientation interacted with game outcome to produce adaptive responses for participants who held a mastery orientation and maladaptive responses for participants who held an outcome orientation. In addition to achievement orientation, the margin of victory played an important role in determining the type of counterfactual produced. The implications of these findings are discussed.