This paper examines the relationship between the smoking hehavior of supervisors and the effectiveness ratings attributed to them by their subordinates on 5 leadership eflectiveness measures. A sample of 3.422 assessments revealed that supervisors who smoke were rated lower than were nonsmoking supervisors. The findings suggest that smoking tobacco is associated with lower supervisory effectiveness, as perceived by subordinates. The causes for such lower ratings are attributed to bias against smokers in the workplace. actual performance differences, or both.