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The present study tested whether the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and self-efficacy for female condom use predicted intentions to use the female condom among African American adults. Participants were 137 men and women, 18 to 35 years of age, who were recruited from a community-based organization. Results indicate that: (a) the TRA model has predictive utility for women's but not for men's intentions to use the female condom with both main and casual sex partners, and (b) the TRA model was a better predictor of intentions to use the female condom with main than with casual partners. Implications for female condom-use promotion are discussed.