The present research was supported by Fellowship #82 10-040207 from the Swiss National Science Foundation. We wish to thank Todd Shimoda and Changiz Mohiyeddini for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. We are grateful to Terry Hartig. Gabriel Magassy, and Samantha Boltax for their assistance in preparing and entering data, and to Peter A. Bowler and Nia Schmald for collecting data. Moreover, we thank the staff of the University of California Natural Reserve System's San Joaquin Marsh Reserve, who allowed us to use the Reserve as a study area. We are also grateful to the Department of Psychology at the University of California-Berkeley for allowing us to use the subject pool, and to Michael Ranney at University of California-Berkeley and Peter A. Bowler at University of Califomia-lrvrne for promoting the study with their students. Finally, we are especially thankful to all of the volunteers who participated in the study.
Assessing People's General Ecological Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Measure1
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 30, Issue 5, pages 952–978, May 2000
How to Cite
Kaiser, F. G. and Wilson, M. (2000), Assessing People's General Ecological Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Measure. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30: 952–978. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02505.x
Ecological behavior means “actions which contribute towards environmental preservation and/or conservation” (Axelrod & Lehman. 1993, p. 153). It includes behaviors such as recycling and composting, energy and water conservation, political activism, consumerism, commitment to environmental organizations, and so forth. We prefer ecological to other qualifiers such as pro-ecological and environmentally concerned because conservation (ecological behavior) is the psychological index term used (Walker, 1994).
- Issue published online: 31 JUL 2006
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006
The present study aims to further develop the General Ecological Behavior (GEB) scale in order to apply it cross-culturally. The scale is proposed to be relatively open, neither bound to a particular set of ecological behaviors nor to a particular questionnaire response format. Questionnaire data from 686 California students were compared with the original Swiss calibration data. Reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity revcal that the GEB could be applied to the California students as well as to the Swiss sample, which consisted of older adults. Because the GEB measure makes use of behavior difficulties–caused by situational influences-the proposed approach also guides the search for political actions that could promote changes in more ecologically behaving societies.