This research is based, in part, on a master's thesis submitted by the first author to the Northern Arizona University Department of Psychology under the direction of the second author. The authors wish to thank committee members K. Laurie Dickson and Kelly Krietsch for their helpful comments, and the graduate and undergraduate students who assisted with data collection. We thank an anonymous reviewer who contributed significant guidance in revising the manuscript.
Ruminative Thoughts and Their Relation to Depression and Anxiety1
Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 32, Issue 3, pages 465–485, March 2002
How to Cite
Harrington, J. A. and Blankenship, V. (2002), Ruminative Thoughts and Their Relation to Depression and Anxiety. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32: 465–485. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00225.x
- Issue online: 31 JUL 2006
- Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2006
Although past research has shown a correlation between ruminative response style and depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991), the basic relationships among amount of ruminative thoughts, depression, and anxiety has not been established. Scores from the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck & Steer, 1993), and the McIntosh and Martin (1992) Rumination Scale were analyzed for 199 participants. The correlation between rumination and depression was .33, between rumination and anxiety was .32, and between depression and anxiety was .56. The partial correlation between rumination and depression (controlling for anxiety level) was .20, and the partial correlation between rumination and anxiety (controlling for depression level) was .17. The finding that rumination is not unique to depression but is also associated with the specific negative affect of anxiety alone might also suggest new treatments of these two prevalent disorders.