Development and Evaluation of a Measure of Dangerous, Aggressive, Negative Emotional, and Risky Driving1


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    Partial funding for this project was provided by the Cratis D. Williams Graduate School at Appalachian State University. The authors thank Tim Ludwig for providing feedback on earlier versions of the manuscript.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Chris S. Dula, Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech, Center for Applied Behavior Systems, 5100 Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0436. E-mail:


The Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) was created to measure drivers’ self-reported likelihood to drive dangerously. Each DDDI scale (DDDI Total, Aggressive Driving, Negative Emotional Driving, and Risky Driving scales) had strong internal reliability and there was also evidence for the construct validity of the scales. The DDDI was used to examine the relation between dangerous and aggressive driving and dispositional aggression and anger among 119 college students. Males reported significantly more aggressive, risky, and angry driving than did females. Males and females reported similar levels of dangerous driving and negative emotions while driving. Dangerous driving was positively related to traffic citations and causing accidents. The DDDI will be useful as a research instrument to examine dangerous driving.