The Relations of Immigrant-Specific and Immigrant-Nonspecific Daily Hassles to Distress Controlling for Psychological Adjustment and Cultural Competence1


  • 1

    Portions of the present study were based on a master's thesis completed by the first author under the supervision of the second author. The authors thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments in revising the manuscript.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Saba F. Safdar, who is now at Psychology Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario NIG 2W1, Canada. E-mail:


In separating immigrant-specific daily hassles (out-group, family, and in-group) from immigrant-nonspecific general hassles, the relations of hassles to depression and physical symptoms were examined. The respondents were 79 female and 85 male Iranian immigrants to Canada. In Block 1 of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the experience of out-group hassles and of general hassles both contributed to the prediction of depression. In Block 2, psychological adjustment and perceived cultural competence in the host society, along with out-group hassles, predicted depression. General hassles were the only predictor of physical symptoms. Psychological adjustment, as a buffer, interacted with hassles in enhancing the prediction of distress. The importance of distinguishing and accounting for both immigrant-specific and immigrant-nonspecific hassles in predicting outcome measures was considered, as was the importance of assessing dispositional variables in this context.