The current study examined the relationship between self-monitoring and leader emergence focusing on the specific observable behaviors that differentiate high and low self-monitors in small decision groups. Consistent with previous research, high self-monitors were more likely to emerge as leaders than were low self-monitors. Further, observational ratings of task-oriented and relationship-oriented leader behaviors made by trained raters blind to the purpose of the study indicated that high self-monitors emerged as leaders by engaging in significantly more task-oriented leader behaviors. In contrast, no differences were found in relationship-oriented leader behaviors between high and low self-monitors. The findings are discussed in the context of behavioral approaches to the study of leadership and research on self-monitoring. Implications for research on leader emergence, group process, and research methods are also provided, along with directions for future research.