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This paper reports an application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the prediction of breast self-examination (BSE) intentions and behavior. The study also considered the distinction between perceived control and self-efficacy within the TPB and the additional predictive utility of past behavior. A sample of 95 women completed questionnaires based on the TPB and were followed up at 1 month. Support for the distinction between perceived control and self-efficacy was provided by principal components analysis. The TPB was found to be highly predictive of intention to perform BSE and subsequent BSE behavior. Regression analyses revealed self-efficacy and attitude to be predictive of intention to perform BSE. Intention, in turn, was the sole predictor of BSE at 1-month follow-up. Past behavior was found to explain additional variance in intention, but not BSE behavior at 1-month follow-up. The results are discussed in relation to the conceptual status of the perceived behavioral control construct, and the practical implications of the results are highlighted.