The theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), and a revised TPB were evaluated using manifest variable structural equation modeling among 4th- through 6th-grade students for effectiveness in predicting lifetime cigarette use. TRA was an adequate model for female students, but not male students. TPB resulted in improved model fit over TRA for both male and female students, and a revised TPB model improved fit marginally among female students. Tests for differences across gender indicated that the relationship between intention to use and lifetime cigarette use was stronger among female compared to male students. The results indicate that the TPB is an effective model for predicting lifetime cigarette use among late elementary-school-aged children.