Stereotype Threat in Applied Settings Re-Examined


Chris Crandall, Department of Psychology, University of Kansas, 1415 Jayhawk Boulevard, Lawrence, KS 66045. E-mail:


Stricker & Ward (2004) examined stereotype threat with a national sample of students taking an Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus exam, and a smaller sample taking Computerized Placement Tests (CPT). They inquired about gender either before (traditional) or after the test (which can reduce stereotype threat). They reported no significant effects of question timing. We reanalyze their findings, and argue that their conservative criterion for evidence led them to overlook significant stereotype threat effects with real practical implications. Women benefited substantially on the Calculus test, and on the CPT–Reading when demographics were asked after testing rather than before. This simple, small, and inexpensive change could increase U.S. women receiving AP Calculus AB credit by more than 4,700 every year.