We examined self-efficacy (task, in-class, and barrier) and physical activity during transition from hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation. Participants (N = 50) completed measures of self-efficacy at the midpoint and end of the program. Cardiac rehabilitation adherence was monitored and physical activity assessed by telephone interview 6 and 12 weeks post-program. Mid-program barrier self-efficacy predicted adherence (R2adj. = .15, p < .05). Barrier self-efficacy at the end of the program predicted physical activity 6 weeks later (R2 = .11, p < .05). Task self-efficacy at the end of the program predicted home-based exercise at the 12-week follow-up (R2 = .10, p < .05). Results have implications for intervention efforts to ease transition from supervised to independent home-based exercise.