This study investigated the function of gender-role orientation as a predictor of socially focused alcohol treatment outcome. Participants were drawn from a randomized controlled trial involving home detoxification with an add-on psychological intervention to enhance social support and coping. Participants were classified into 4 gender-role types (androgynous, masculine, feminine, or undifferentiated). Analysis was conducted relating to differential (between gender-role groups) treatment effects in relation to the main outcome measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems and self-esteem. The relationship between perceived social support and gender-role type as a function of treatment outcome was also explored. Levels of psychological masculinity and femininity were more predictive of a socially focused treatment outcome than were sex differences.