This research was supported by a research grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and by internal research grants to the first author from King's University College at the University of Western Ontario.
Self-Regulation in Goal Striving: Individual Differences and Situational Moderators of the Goal-Framing/Performance Link1
Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008
© 2008 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 38, Issue 11, pages 2691–2709, November 2008
How to Cite
Roney, C. J. R. and Lehman, D. R. (2008), Self-Regulation in Goal Striving: Individual Differences and Situational Moderators of the Goal-Framing/Performance Link. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38: 2691–2709. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2008.00410.x
- Issue published online: 22 OCT 2008
- Article first published online: 22 OCT 2008
We propose that negative goal framing (i.e., defining a goal as a negative state to be avoided) can adversely affect performance. Study 1 (N = 133) revealed that negative goal framing predicted poorer future performance independent of goal level, expectancy, and earlier performance. Study 2 (N = 188) examined the relation between goal framing and performance at 2 times in the academic year, and with respect to individual differences in defensive pessimism. As predicted, the negative goal-framing/poorer-performance link was greater on a later exam (after receiving feedback) than an earlier one, and was greater for nondefensive pessimists than for defensive pessimists. The findings implicate self-regulatory processes in understanding how goal framing affects performance.