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Structural Modeling of Car Use on the Way to the University in Different Settings: Interplay of Norms, Habits, Situational Restraints, and Perceived Behavioral Control1

Authors

  • Christian A. Klöckner,

    Corresponding author
    1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
      Trondheim, Norway
      Christian A. Klöckner, NTNU–Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Riskpsychology, Environment and Safety (RISPENSA), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway. E-mail: Christian.Klockner@svt.ntnu.no
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  • Ellen Matthies

    1. Ruhr-University Bochum
      Bochum, Germany
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  • 1

    This research was supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG) Grant MA 1977/2-1 to Ellen Matthies and Anke Blöbaum.

Christian A. Klöckner, NTNU–Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Riskpsychology, Environment and Safety (RISPENSA), NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway. E-mail: Christian.Klockner@svt.ntnu.no

Abstract

This manuscript presents the results of the application of an extended norm activation model to the explanation of car use on the way to the university with a sample of 430 students of 3 German universities. The proposed two-stage structural model is supported by the data. First, a norm activation process starting with awareness of consequences activates subjective and personal norms. Second, behavior is determined by car-use habits, perceived behavioral control (PBC), car access, and effort to use public transportation. The influence of personal norms on behavior is mediated by habits. Subgroup analyses of the second stage of the model show a high structural stability, but differences in the regression weights.

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