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Transactional Leadership Revisited: Self–Other Agreement and Its Consequences


J. Lee Whittington, College of Business and Graduate School of Management, University of Dallas, 1845 E. Northgate, Irving, TX 75062. E-mail:


In a field study involving 209 leader–follower dyads, we examined leader–follower agreement regarding perceptions of the leaders' behavior style and follower outcomes of performance, organizational citizenship behavior, affective commitment, and trust in the leader. Using the self–other agreement paradigm, we found that agreement about a leader's style as transactional was positively related to these outcomes, whereas there was no relationship between agreement about a leader's transformational style and any of the outcomes. These findings support our view that a shared interpretation of the leader's transactional behavior is essential for positive follower outcomes, and may also be a necessary precondition for the effective use of transformational leader behavior. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.