I am grateful to Anika Schwab and Dana Koch for collecting the data and for feeding the computer.
Proactive People Are Morning People1
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009
© 2009 Copyright the Author. Journal compilation © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 39, Issue 12, pages 2787–2797, December 2009
How to Cite
Randler, C. (2009), Proactive People Are Morning People. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39: 2787–2797. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00549.x
- Issue published online: 9 DEC 2009
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009
Proactivity is the willingness and ability to take action to change a situation to one's advantage and has been studied in a wide range of contexts. The role of chronotype on proactivity has not been assessed. Individual differences in circadian rhythms have been widely acknowledged and are accepted as an interesting facet of human personality. Morning people were more proactive than evening types, and people with small differences in rise time between weekdays and free days were also more proactive persons. Sleep length (on weekdays and on free days) and total time spent in weekend oversleep did not show any relationship with proactivity. These results suggest that morning people are more proactive than are evening types.