Proactive People Are Morning People1


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    I am grateful to Anika Schwab and Dana Koch for collecting the data and for feeding the computer.

Christoph Randler, who is now at the University of Education, Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 561, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail:


Proactivity is the willingness and ability to take action to change a situation to one's advantage and has been studied in a wide range of contexts. The role of chronotype on proactivity has not been assessed. Individual differences in circadian rhythms have been widely acknowledged and are accepted as an interesting facet of human personality. Morning people were more proactive than evening types, and people with small differences in rise time between weekdays and free days were also more proactive persons. Sleep length (on weekdays and on free days) and total time spent in weekend oversleep did not show any relationship with proactivity. These results suggest that morning people are more proactive than are evening types.