Expanding the Affective and Normative Components of the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of Anticipated Affect and Moral Norms


Amanda Rivis, Institute of Work, Health, & Organisations, University of Nottingham, Jubilee Campus, Wollaton Road, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, UK. E-mail: Amanda.Rivis@nottingham.ac.uk


Meta-analysis was used to determine the predictive validity of anticipated affect and moral norms in the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991). Medium-to-large sample-weighted average correlations were obtained. Anticipated affect and moral norms increased the variance explained in intentions by 5% and 3%, respectively, controlling for TPB variables. Intention mediated the influence of both variables on behavior. Moderator analyses showed that younger samples and behaviors with a moral dimension were associated with stronger moral-norm/intention relations, and anticipated regret was associated with a stronger anticipated-affect/intention relation. The implications of the findings for the TPB are discussed.