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Sacred Violations, Perceptions of Injustice, and Anger in Muslims


Allan (Steve) Brown, Patton State Hospital, Department of Psychology, 3102 East Highland Avenue, Patton, CA 92369. E-mail: or


Anger has been at the center of religiopolitical conflicts and has been associated with well-being. This study examined the role of Muslim anger in sociopolitical events perceived as a sacred violation. A Muslim sample (N = 151) identified adverse political events that have deeply affected them; and completed measures of anger, sacred violations, perceptions of injustice, and religiousness. Sacred violations and perceptions of injustice were associated with greater levels of anger, with sacred violations being the stronger predictor. Post hoc analyses revealed that surrender problem-solving style increased anger control. The findings provide broad support for the importance of religious appraisals of adverse political events in Muslim anger.