Re-Examining Machiavelli: A Three-Dimensional Model of Machiavellianism in the Workplace


Stacey Kessler, Management and Information Systems, School of Business, Montclair State University, Partridge Hall 322B, 1 Normal Avenue, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043. E-mail:


Machiavellianism has been studied extensively over the past 40 years as a personality characteristic that shares features with the manipulative leadership tactics Machiavelli advocated in The Prince. We introduce a new model of Machiavellianism based in organizational settings that is multidimensional, incorporating aspects not previously included in Machiavellianism scales. Our model consists of 3 factors: maintaining power, harsh management tactics, and manipulative behaviors. The results of 3 studies are summarized, discussing the development of these 3 factors and how they relate to individual-difference and organizational variables.