A Cross-Cultural Test of the Value–Attitude–Behavior Hierarchy


Taciano L. Milfont, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. E-mail: taciano.milfont@vuw.ac.nz


According to Homer and Kahle's (1988) cognitive hierarchy model, values indirectly influence behavior through attitudes. The model posits that the influence theoretically flows from more abstract cognitions to mid-range cognitions to specific behaviors. This paper tests the cross-cultural validity of the model across samples from Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa. The paper specifically tests whether environmental attitudes would completely mediate the influence of both altruistic and self-enhancement values on ecological behavior. This study also extended the model by including perceived threats from environmental problems. Supporting the expanded model, environmental attitudes fully mediated the influence of both values and perceived environmental threat on ecological behavior. This article provides empirical support for using the cognitive hierarchy model across cultures.