Can Outcome Expectancies Help Explain Sex Differences in Direct and Indirect Aggression?
Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Volume 42, Issue 1, pages 151–169, January 2012
How to Cite
MARKS, A. D. G., HINE, D. W., MANTON, G. C. and THORSTEINSSON, E. B. (2012), Can Outcome Expectancies Help Explain Sex Differences in Direct and Indirect Aggression?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42: 151–169. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00876.x
- Issue published online: 11 JAN 2012
- Article first published online: 11 JAN 2012
This study examined the role of outcome expectancies in explaining sex differences in adolescents' inclination to engage in acts of aggression. Using a sample of Australian adolescents, 2 scales were developed to measure outcome expectancies of direct and indirect aggression. The data were used in subsequent mediation analyses. Sex differences in direct aggression were partially mediated by 2 types of aggression expectancies. Relative to females, males anticipated more overall benefits associated with acting aggressively and less fear of reprisals from authority figures. This pattern of expectancy beliefs predicted higher levels of self-reported direct aggression. Sex differences in indirect aggression were fully mediated by anticipation of personal benefits, with males expecting greater personal benefits for engaging in this type of aggression.