Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement in Health Risk and HIV and AIDS Prevention


Calvin Gwandure, School of Human and Community Development, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Box 3 Wits, Johannesburg, South Africa 2050. E-mail:


The purpose of the study was to establish the difference in health and HIV and AIDS risk between students with an internal locus of control (LOC; n = 124) and students with an external LOC (n = 133). The study assessed students' LOC and health risks associated with self-control, fatalism, achievement-oriented behavior, deferment of gratification, personal values, and alienation. The findings indicate significant differences in health risks between students with an internal LOC and those with an external LOC. Future research should focus on LOC, reinforcement, and HIV and AIDS risk.