• 1
    Greenlund KJ, Giles WH, Keenan NL, et al. Heart disease and stroke mortality in the 20th century. In: WardJ, WarrenC, eds. Silent Victories: The History and Practice of Public Health in Twentieth Century America. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press; 2006.
  • 2
    Welch K, Finkbeiner W, Alpers CE, et al. Autopsy findings in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. JAMA. 1984; 252:11521159.
  • 3
    De Castro S, Migliau A, Silvestri A, et al. Heart involvement in AIDS: a prospective study during various stages of disease. Eur Heart J. 1992;11:14521459.
  • 4
    Milei J, Grana D, Alfonso GF, et al. Cardiac involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome—a review to push action. Committee for the Study of Cardiac Involvement in AIDS. Clin Cardiol. 1998;21:465472.
  • 5
    Passalaris JD, Sepkowitz KA, Glesby MJ. Coronary artery disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:787797.
  • 6
    Heron MP, Smith BL. Deaths: leading causes for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2007;55(10):192.
  • 7
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health, United States, 2005, With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2005.
  • 8
    Joshi VV, Pawel B, Conner E, et al. Arteriopathy in children with AIDS. Pediatr Pathol. 1987;7:261275.
  • 9
    Paton P, Tabib A, Loire R, et al. Coronary artery lesions and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Res Virol. 1993;144:225231.
  • 10
    Zietz C, Hotz B, Sturzl M, et al. Aortic endothelium in HIV-1 infection. Am J Pathol. 1996;149:18871898.
  • 11
    Lafeuillade A, Alessi MC, Gastaut JA, et al. Endothelial cell dysfunction in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992; 5:127131.
  • 12
    Vallance P, Collier J, Bhagat K. Infection, inflammation, and infarction: does acute endothelial dysfunction provide a link? Lancet. 1997;349:13911392.
  • 13
    Tabib A, Leroux C, Mornex JF, et al. Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in young human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients. Coron Artery Dis. 2000;11:4146.
  • 14
    Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Hamadeh R, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med. 1989;86:2731.
  • 15
    Haim M, Benderly M, Brunner D, et al. Elevated serum triglyceride levels and long-term mortality in patients with coronary heart disease: the Benzafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Registry. Circulation. 1999; 100:475482.
  • 16
    Grinspoon S, Carr A. Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:4862.
  • 17
    Friis-Moller N, Sabin CA, Weber R, et al. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction: The data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (DAD) study group. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:19932003.
  • 18
    El-Sadr W, Reiss P, De Wit S, et al. Relationship between prolonged exposure to combination ART and myocardial infarction: effect of sex, age, and lipid changes. In: Program and abstracts of the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 2225, 2005; Boston, MA. Abstract.
  • 19
    Brinkman K, Smeitink J, Romijn J, et al. Mitochondrial toxicity induced by nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is a key factor in the pathogenesis of antiretroviral-therapy-related lipodystrophy. Lancet. 1999;354:11121115.
  • 20
    Zaera MG, Miró O, Pedrol E, et al. Mitochondrial involvement in antiretroviral therapy-related lipodystrophy. AIDS. 2001;15:16431651.
  • 21
    Dowell P, Flexner C, Kwiterovich PO, et al. Suppression of preadipocyte differentiation and promotion of adipocyte death by HIV protease inhibitors. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4132541332.
  • 22
    Lenhard JM, Furfine ES, Jain RG, et al. HIV protease inhibitors block adipogenesis and increase lipolysis in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2000;47:121129.
  • 23
    Carr A, Samaras K, Thorisdottir A, et al. Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Lancet. 1999;353:20932099.
  • 24
    Carr A, Emery S, Law M, et al. An objective case definition of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected adults: a case control study. Lancet. 2003;361:726735.
  • 25
    Friis-Moller N, Weber R, Reiss P, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients—association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS. 2003;17:11791193.
  • 26
    Hadigan C, Meigs JB, Corcoran C, et al. Metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and lipodystrophy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:130139.
  • 27
    Brown TT, Cole SR, Li X, et al. Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165:11791184.
  • 28
    Currier JS, Kendall MA, Zackin R, et al, for the AACTG 5078 Study Team. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and HIV infection: traditional risk factors overshadow impact of protease inhibitor exposure. AIDS. 2005;19:927933.
  • 29
    Dube MP, Stein JH, Fichtenbaum CJ, et al. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:613627.
  • 30
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001;285:24862497.
  • 31
    Thoni GJ, Fedou C, Brun JF, et al. Reduction of fat accumulation and lipid disorders by individualized light aerobic training in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with lipodystrophy and/or dyslipidemia. Diabetes Metab. 2002;28:397404.
  • 32
    Jones SP, Doran DA, Leatt PB, et al. Short-term exercise training improves body composition and hyperlipidaemia in HIV-positive individuals with lipodystrophy. AIDS. 2001;15:20492051.
  • 33
    Fichtenbaum CJ, Gerber JG, Rosenkranz SL, et al. Pharmacokinetic interactions between protease inhibitors and statins in HIV seronegative volunteers: ACTG Study A5047. AIDS. 2002;16:569577.
  • 34
    Martinez E, Domingo P, Ribeira E, et al. Effects of metformin or gemfibrozil on the lipodystrophy of HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors. Antivir Ther. 2003;8:403410.
  • 35
    Martinez E, Arnaiz JA, Podzamczer D, et al. Substitution of nevirapine, efavirenz, or abacavir for protease inhibitors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:10361046.
  • 36
    Martinez E, Conget I, Lozano L, et al. Reversion of metabolic abnormalities after switching from HIV-1 protease inhibitors to nevirapine. AIDS. 1999;13:805810.