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Keywords:

  • Candida;
  • biofilms;
  • biomaterials;
  • implant devices;
  • antifungal drug resistance

Abstract

In recent years there has been an increasing appreciation that microbial biofilms are ubiquitous, which has resulted in a number of studies on infectious diseases from a biofilm perspective. Biofilms are defined as structured microbial communities that are attached to a surface and encased in a matrix of exopolymeric material. A wide range of biomaterials used in clinical practice have been shown to support colonization and biofilm formation by Candida spp., and the increase in Candida infections in the last decades has almost paralleled the increase and widespread use of a broad range of medical implant devices, mainly in populations with impaired host defenses. Formation of Candida biofilms has important clinical repercussions because of their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of cells within biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Further recognition and understanding of the role of Candida biofilms in human infection should help in the clinical management of these recalcitrant infections.