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Keywords:

  • ageing;
  • pexophagy;
  • proteasome;
  • reactive oxygen species;
  • yeast

Abstract

Cellular proteins and organelles such as peroxisomes are under continuous quality control. Upon synthesis in the cytosol, peroxisomal proteins are kept in an import-competent state by chaperones or specific proteins with an analogous function to prevent degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. During protein translocation into the organelle, the peroxisomal targeting signal receptors (Pex5, Pex20) are also continuously undergoing quality control to enable efficient functioning of the translocon (RADAR pathway). Even upon maturation of peroxisomes, matrix enzymes and peroxisomal membranes remain subjected to quality control. As a result of their oxidative metabolism, peroxisomes are producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids. To counteract ROS-induced damage, yeast peroxisomes contain two important antioxidant enzymes: catalase and an organelle-specific peroxiredoxin. Additionally, a Lon-type protease has recently been identified in the peroxisomal matrix, which is capable of degrading nonfunctional proteins. Finally, cellular housekeeping processes keep track of the functioning of peroxisomes so that dysfunctional organelles can be quickly removed via selective autophagy (pexophagy). This review provides an overview of the major processes involved in quality control of yeast peroxisomes.