Editor: Richard Calderone
Covalently linked cell wall proteins of Candida albicans and their role in fitness and virulence
Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009
© 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved
FEMS Yeast Research
Special Issue: Candida albicans: fundamental research on an opportunistic human pathogen
Volume 9, Issue 7, pages 1013–1028, November 2009
How to Cite
Klis, F. M., Sosinska, G. J., De Groot, P. W.J. and Brul, S. (2009), Covalently linked cell wall proteins of Candida albicans and their role in fitness and virulence. FEMS Yeast Research, 9: 1013–1028. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2009.00541.x
- Issue published online: 13 OCT 2009
- Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009
- Received 23 March 2009; revised 26 May 2009; accepted 9 June 2009.Final version published online 16 July 2009.
- cell wall model;
- GPI proteins;
The cell wall of Candida albicans consists of an internal skeletal layer and an external protein coat. This coat has a mosaic-like nature, containing c. 20 different protein species covalently linked to the skeletal layer. Most of them are GPI proteins. Coat proteins vary widely in function. Many of them are involved in the primary interactions between C. albicans and the host and mediate adhesive steps or invasion of host cells. Others are involved in biofilm formation and cell–cell aggregation. They further include iron acquisition proteins, superoxide dismutases, and yapsin-like aspartic proteases. In addition, several covalently linked carbohydrate-active enzymes are present, whose precise functions remain hitherto largely elusive. The expression levels of the genes that encode covalently linked cell wall proteins (CWPs) can vary enormously. They depend on the mode of growth and the combined inputs of several signaling pathways that sense environmental conditions. This is reflected in the unusually long intergenic regions of most of these genes. Finally, the precise location of several covalently linked CWPs is temporally and spatially regulated. We conclude that covalently linked CWPs of C. albicans play a crucial role in fitness and virulence and that their expression is tightly controlled.